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Why is making the economy the instinct of every kind of animal on earth?

Updated: 18 Aug, 2019 lúc August 18, 2019
It turns out that not only do people have commercial transactions, even animals often exchange each other, in a very instinctive way.
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In "The Wealth of Nations" written by economist Adam Smith, he describes the behavior of trade exchange between people to be unique.
"Nobody has ever seen a dog exchange a fair bone with another dog," Mr. Smith wrote.
This thought has been inherited to many generations of economists later. Even the father of modern economic theory John Maynard Keynes also argued that humans have actions that go against other animals.
However, recent studies prove that in the animal world, interactions between individuals are real. A recent study in January 2017 showed that honeycomb can exchange among worker bees to support each other's resources.
The ancestors of workers can "rent" some of their worker bees to other teams to work, or even rent worker bees to support the heavy nest.
Why is making the economy the instinct of every kind of animal on earth?  - Photo 1.
This process completely depends on supply and demand theory. When scientists increase the number of beehives in an area, queen bees willing to accept hiring more workers from other teams. This is similar to an increase in demand, leading to a decline in the cost of market participation.
Biologist Ronald Noe of Strasbourg University said if Adam Smith took a closer look at bees, he would see a sophisticated trading system between individuals.
A series of studies have shown signs of exchanges in the animal world, from the Central American forest to the African desert. The baboons and some primates accept the exchange of time to mate with the stronger male to maintain the race. Many plants and insects receive the help and protection of ants in exchange for providing food and benefits. The cleaning fish species (Cleaner Wrasses) eat parasites on other fish species such as food, in exchange for cleaning those individuals.
These new views on trade and animal behavior challenged biologists and dogmatic economics.
"We all study animals that are not based on theories for human behavior, but some for humanity are important in biology. In fact, I believe that some doctrines are more accurate in the animal world than humans, ”said Humboldt University biology professor Peter Hammerstein.
Why is making the economy the instinct of every kind of animal on earth?  - Photo 2.
Free economic market in the natural world
Noe was the one who proposed the theory of economic behavior in biology in 1994, but they have since started working as a PhD in Kenya in 1981. Initially baboons attracted attention. of this expert.
This animal often lives in large groups and Noe is interested in the weak baboons in the herd that will accept the right to mate with stronger males.
From here on, Mr. Noe began to study many phenomena that help each other to exchange benefits between individuals and animals in nature.
Initially, the theory of gene homology or related kinship influenced Noe's hypotheses until the study of cleaning fishes eating parasites in the mouth of other fish appeared. They do not have genomic similarities but the fish cleaned do not become the food of larger individuals.
From here on, the ideas of economic theory in the animal world begin to grow.
Going back to the baboon in Kenya, expert Noe paid special attention to an individual named Stu, a stronger baboon than other males. During mating, if Stu is not happy with his partner, he will switch to other children regardless of whether the individual is mate with another male.
The strange thing is that weaker males accept to exchange partners with Stu instead of resisting and cannot continue to mate.
This example of Stu and the baboons shows a common contract settlement relationship in business when rejecting a deal he / she knows cannot win to focus on another project.
Why is making the economy the instinct of every kind of animal on earth?  - Photo 3.
In addition to baboons, scorpions also show signs of exchange behavior when male individuals must give a prey to the female before they want to mate. Or in the purple tern, the male will give another male access to its territory in return for help in hunting and nurturing the individual.
Meanwhile, Lycaenid butterflies produce a sweet nectar that attracts ants to feed on honey and protect their children from the enemy.
Each of the examples above does not have a fixed "exchange rate" that depends on how the provision of exchange services depends on each party's needs. In the case of the scorpion, for example, if the number of male scorpions is higher, the quality of the male will be higher than that of the individual required before mating. Meanwhile Lycaenid butterflies regulate the amount of bile secreted depending on the number of ants as well as the threats in the environment with their offspring.
Concurrent with Mr. Noe, Professor Redouan Bshary of the University of Neuchatel-Switzerland also studied baboons and thought that these species exchanged services such as catching lice, mating opportunities. , take care of individual animals to ensure the benefits of the whole herd. This is an example of a commercial transaction that follows the economics with balanced supply and demand.
One of Noe's most recent studies is about the fungus when they exchange phosphorus with the carbon of the host plants they parasitize. The exchange rate depends entirely on the supply and demand of each species and whether the fungus or the tree does not have a brain, but their biological system naturally makes an instinctive exchange beneficial to the individual.
Noe's theory has really caught the attention of experts. The attitude of "invisible hand" in economics of Adam Smith does not seem very accurate in the general human market due to the complexity of each individual.
However, they appear more accurate in the natural environment when all individuals act instinctively for their own good.